Week 5– Discussion Question 1Describe a real or hypothetical situation that requires someone to make a policy decision. Then, select one of the three approaches to forecasting to apply: extrapolative, theoretical, or judgmental. Provide at least two reasons for your selection of the forecasting approach. Situation ~ Per “Despite dangers of texting and driving, charges and convictions relatively rare” by Shawn Taylor, Robert Lee and Jennifer Dandron, many drivers text while they drive. And most everyone knows it is happening. While a texting while driving, law has been in eFect in North Carolina since 2010, law enforcement still has a tough time having the evidence to make the charge. And even when they do, less than half of those are convicted statewide (about 44 percent). Problems with Enforcement ~ Even though law enforcement o±cers suspect the problem is widespread, they rarely catch culprits in the act, Shelton said. If a marked patrol car pulls beside a driver, they are going to put their phone in their lap. Just by being present, troopers can reduce texting and driving, he said, but that does not do anything toward enforcingthe law. He pointed to data from the National Highway Tra±c Safety Administration that shows 10 percent of injury crashes are caused by distracted driving, roughly in line with what he sees day to day.Seeking to Toughen the Law ~the North Carolina texting while driving law, enacted around 2010, made it illegal to “manually enter multiple letters or text in the device as a means of communicating with another person; or read any electronic mail or text message transmitted to the device or stored within the device.”If someone is convicted, the ²ne is $100. No points are added to the driver’s license and insurance does not increase, unless the use of the phone results in a crash. At the time the law went into eFect, the penalty was believed to be the “right level,” per Sen. JeF Tarte (R-Mecklenburg), who is sponsoring a new bill that would increase the penalty for convictions of texting while driving. Lawmakers believed the conviction rate would be high and that it would help deter texting and driving, he added.But statewide totals show that has not happened.The issue of texting and driving is near universal, per E.D. Shelton, a sergeant with the N.C. Highway Patrol based in Iredell. Shelton has 19 years’ experience as a trooper. “Everybody’s got the world in their back pocket,” he said, referring to cell phones, and he pointed out that companies continue to push data packages,apps and features that sway drivers into using their devices in their cars.
2 1. Construct constitutive and operational definitions for any three (3) of the actions and outcome variables listed in the shaded box under Review Question 1 at the end of Chapter 6. (Note: The box includes Program expenditure, Equality of educational opportunity, Energy consumption, etc. Program Expenditure: This is the kind of expenditure in policy making which falls under planned category. It is very important that right methods are implemented in budgeting processes the same as cutting on the same is harmful for the economic Governance. Equality of Educational Opportunity: Every individual in the region of Governance should have equal right of education irrespective of any factor. Energy Consumption: Consumption of energy in the region should be monitored and billed accordingly. 2. Identify three (3) policy problems listed in the shaded box under Review Question 5 and determine an appropriate indicator or index that would help determine whether each of the identified problems are being solved through government action. Justify your position on each. (Note: The box includes Work alienation, School dropouts, Poverty, etc.) Poverty What is Poverty? Poverty is the state of lacking such essentials as money, food, water, clothing, and shelter. The American economist Mollie Orshansky defined poverty as being deprived of "those goods and services and pleasures which others around us take for granted." Poverty is a global problem, but there is much debate regarding how to define poverty and how to remedy it in its various forms.